In both first and last analyses –
the Dominant “Perpetraitor”
is the

” ‘<-Fit-for-Purpose’ *


How Democracies Die –
What History Reveals About Our Future;
Steven Levitsky & Daniel Ziblatt.
(Penguin 2019).

“… we tend to think of democracies dying at the hands of men with guns.
“…another way of breaking a democracy is … at the hands of elected leaders.”
The electoral road to breakdown is dangerously deceptive…
Elected autocrats maintain a veneer of democracy
whilst eviscerating irs substance…
Democracy’s erosion is, for many, almost imperceptible”.
The egalitarianism, civility, sense-of-freedom,
and shared-purpose
– all portrayed by E.B.White –
were the essence of mid-20th-century democracy.
Today, that is under assault
across the industrialised West.
We must not only restore democratic norms
but extend them
through the whole of
increasingly diverse societies.”
Previous generations of Europeans and Americans
made extraordinary sacrifices
to defend our democratic institutions against powerful external threats.

Our generation,
which grew up taking democracy for granted,
now faces a different task.
We must prevent it from

dying from within.



* ‘Less-than-fit-for-purpose’ = ‘seriously-short of Abilities’ –
[including falling short of both response-ability and responsibility‘.